Cambridge University Library

Papers of Sir Isaac Newton (Add. 3958-4007 and 9597)

Isaac Newton (1642-1727), the greatest natural philosopher of his age and perhaps any age, came up to the University of Cambridge in 1661, graduating in 1665. In 1669 he succeeded Isaac Barrow in the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics. In 1699 Newton was appointed Master of the Mint, resigning the Lucasian Chair and his Trinity College Fellowship in 1701. He was elected President of the Royal Society in 1703, which post he occupied until his death.

After his death, Newton's manuscripts passed to his niece Catherine and her husband John Conduitt. That the papers were not sold at the time owes much to the Conduitts, who appreciated their inestimable scholastic value. In 1740 the Conduitt's daughter, also Catherine, married John Wallop, who became Viscount Lymington when his father was created first Earl of Portsmouth. Their son became the second earl, the manuscripts thus being inherited by succeeding generations of the Portsmouth family.

It was the fifth earl who, in 1872, passed all the Newton manuscripts he possessed to the University of Cambridge, where a catalogue of the collection was made by a syndicate comprising the University scientists George Gabriel Stokes, John Couch Adams, Henry Richards Luard and George Downing Liveing. The catalogue having been prepared, the earl generously presented all the mathematical and scientific manuscripts to the University, and it is these that form the 'Portsmouth collection' in the University Library (MSS Add. 3958-4007).

The remainder of the papers, many concerned with alchemy, theology and chronology, were returned to Lord Portsmouth. These manuscripts were sold at auction at Sotheby's in London in 1936.

Broadly, Newton's mathematical papers were assigned UL classmarks Add. 3958-3964, 3968; manuscripts relating to the Principia Add. 3965, 3967; astronomy and optics Add. 3969-3972; chemistry Add. 3973-3975; with correspondence at Add. 3976-3986. Other manuscripts were assigned classmarks Add. 3987-4006, although some annotated printed works in this run have since been transferred to the Adversaria Class in the Rare Books Department. Copies of further letters are at Add. 4007.

Under the regulations for the Lucasian Chair, Newton deposited copies of his lectures in the University Library in the seventeenth century. These, and some correspondence relating to the University, were assigned the classmarks Dd.4.18, Dd.9.46, Dd.9.67, Dd.9.68, and Mm.6.50.

In 2000 the University Library acquired a very important collection of scientific manuscripts from the Earl of Macclesfield, a collection which includes a substantial number of Isaac Newton's papers and many other significant mathematical and scientific papers of the 18th century. These are presently being catalogued and digitised, and are undergoing intensive conservation treatment. Access to the Macclesfield Collection (Add. MS 9597) is by appointment only and prospective readers should contact the officer responsible for scientific manuscripts giving at least one month's notice so that the accessibility of the papers the reader wishes to see can be confirmed. Digital copies of some of the Macclesfield documents may be viewed online.

Readers should note that, due to its supreme scholarly value, the Portsmouth Collection of Newton's original manuscripts is not produced for consultation. Microfilm of the complete collection is available. Readers who feel it essential that they consult the original Collection must first apply, in writing, well in advance of any proposed visit to the Library. Permission to use the original papers may only be granted by the Keeper of Manuscripts and University Archives.

Contact: Adam Perkins (01223 333056; ajp21@cam.ac.uk).